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Hanuman. Kumbakarna, who actually does not agree with Rahwana, s conduct, still feels very sad seeing his sister and Cousin die. Hestill wishes to show his loyalty to his country. Rushing forward to the battle- field, lie is attacked by an army of apes, all of whom are beaten even Laksmana is beaten. Only when Rama appears armed with bow and arrows that Kumbakarna dies as a hero.

two great families and the journey of Yudisrira to Heuvcn. Unlike the Ramayana) the story of which is fairly simpie, the story of the Mababbarata is rather complicated and very long.

The story of Ramayana, which is performed in dance-drama or jendratari, does not deviate much from original epic but the Java, nese dance-drama presenting stories from the epic Mahabharafa do deviate a great deal.

The Mdbabbardta has long been known by the Javanese inore than a thousand years ago. For example, the story oi Bimmaya Kumara is*k6corded as performed as puppet theatre (wayang) in the

copper plate inscription issued by King Balitung in A.P. 907. It is a story about Bhima, the second brother of the five Pandawas.

The Javanese make a clear distinction between stories based oil epic and those which were created by dalang (puppeteer). The for mer are called Won pokok, or Won (hiparan, or Won jejer (trunk stories), the latter Won carangan (branch stories). There are also stories wholly invented by ddlang called lahon sempalan (detached stories).

By the middle of the 18th century, it seems, the Mababharaia -as preferred to the Ramayana for performance in the courts of the Central Javanese kings and mansions of the nobility. I suspect that the preference was not only because the Mahabbarata creatively inspired new stories. It also reflected the political conditions at that time. The Dutch had divided the Mataram kingdom into. two -Surakarta and Yogyakarta - for the two brothers Sunan Paku Buwono III and Sultan Hamengku Buwono I in 1755.

By the 18th century stories based on the Mahabharata were being performed both through the-leath,~.- shadow-puppet-play and through dance-drama (wayang wong). The performance al"'ys

depicted a conflict between the five Pandawas and the hundred Kaurawas, with the intervention of a third party who was considered foreign (Javanese: Sabrangen), supposedly the Dutch.

It should be noted that because the Javanese considered the heroes of both the Ramaya-na and the Mababbarala, it is not

surprising that the Javanese have also created new stories combining the Ramayana and the Mahahbarata, for example the Rama Nitis (Incarnation of Rama). In the Rama Nitis Rama incarnates in Kresna, advisor 'and helper, of the Pandawas, and Laksmana. incarnates . in

Arjuna, the greatest hero of the Mahahharata.

Based on the Mahahharata the Javanese men of letters made up stories of their own, though the names of the important characters are taken from names from the Mahabba-rata. The PregiwaPregiwati dance-drama, which is very popular among the Javanese, used to perform the complete story. In the palace of Yogyakarta, such a performance used to last three days at a stretch. Today this. long story can be performed in only two hours, one hour, or even less.

The Pregiwa-Pregiwati dance-drama is now scarcely performed as a whole. Only the most interesting parts of it are performed, such as the journey of Abimanyu and Gatotkaca in their search for Pregiwa-pregiwati when they meet the giant Cakil and his troop of , giants.. Another part performed is the story of war between the Pandawas and the king who desires the prospective wife of Abimanyu. In Yogyakarta this is a separate independent Won,, called lakon Suprabalwati Tinanding (Suprabawati fighting Srikand

Following is a summary of the Pregiwa-Pregiwati ~ance-drama.

King Kresna has.-agrown--up 4a~yghter called De-wi.Siti Sundari.


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